Steps for Hazard Analysis

These are the basic steps for a hazard analysis

  1. List process steps and ingredients
  2. Identify known or reasonably foreseeable food safety hazards
  3. Determine if the hazard requires a preventive control
  4. Justify the decision
  5. Identify preventive controls for significant hazards

There is no standard format for documenting a hazard analysis. The process and forms used in this lesson have been adapted from a curriculum developed by the Food Safety Preventive Controls Alliance and have been used by trained lead instructors for food safety plans.

This form can be used to ensure that all steps are analyzed, and the results documented. Other formats can be used but should contain hazard analysis elements of hazard identification, hazard evaluation, and preventive controls selection. It is very important to justify decisions so that they have credibility.

Hazard Analysis Form

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT:PAGE ______ OF _______
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE:__________________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES:________________
Ingredient or processing step

What production step are you evaluating?
Hazard

Identify potential food safety hazards introduced, controlled, or enhanced at this step.
Preventative Control Required?

Do any potential food safety hazards require a preventive control?
Justify decision

Justify your decision for Column 3.
Preventive controls

What preventive control measure(s) can be applied to significantly minimize or prevent the food hazard? Processes include CCPs, allergen, sanitation, supply-chain, other preventive controls.
Applied at this step?

Is the preventive control applied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

This is the full Hazard Analysis form. Now we will look at each column, individually.

Hazard Analysis – Ingredient or Processing Step column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut ButterPAGE ________ OF __________
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: ___________________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES: _______________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive controls Applied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 1 of this form is used to list each of the process steps from the flow diagram; including the receiving of each raw material or ingredient used in the process (some may be grouped).

Hazard Analysis – Hazard column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut butterPAGE ______ OF _______
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: ___________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES:____________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive ControlsApplied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 2 is the hazard identification and is used to list all raw materials, ingredients, process, and environment-related hazards identified for each step. It is important to understand that you should list a potential hazard that is introduced at this step, or, if not introduced, is controlled at this step or can get worse at this step.

Hazard Analysis – Preventive Control Required column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut butterPAGE _______ OF __________
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: _______________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES: _______________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardsPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive ControlsApplied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 3 is a simple “Yes” or “No” that states whether the hazard requires a preventive control.

Hazard Analysis – Justify Decision column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut butterPAGE _________ OF ___________
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: _______________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES: _______________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive controlsApplied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 4 is the hazard evaluation and is used to justify your answers in column 3 (and sometimes in column 2 to explain why no hazard was identified).

Hazard Analysis – Preventive Controls column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut butterPAGE _________ OF ___________
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: ______________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES: _______________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive ControlsApplied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 5 is used only when there is a “Yes” in column 3 to identify the preventive controls that significantly minimize or prevent the hazard, (such as killing pathogens in the process (process control), preventing the introduction of an allergen (allergen control), implementing dry-cleaning sanitation procedures (sanitation control), verifying supplier Certificate of Analysis (supply-chain control), or other preventive controls).

Hazard Analysis – Applied at this Step column

HAZARD ANAYLSIS
PRODUCT: Peanut butterPAGE ________ OF _________
PLANT NAME:ISSUE DATE: _______________
ADDRESS:SUPERSEDES: _______________
Ingredient or processing stepHazardPreventive Control required?Justify decision Preventive ControlsApplied at this step?
YesNoYesNo
B
C
P

Column 6 is used to document if the preventive control will be managed at that step.

We will use a peanut butter example to illustrate the hazard analysis process and complete a hazard analysis form. You would start by listing each of the process steps in column 1. The hazard analysis is basically a brainstorming exercise where the team generates a list of potential (known or reasonably foreseeable) biological, chemical, and physical food safety hazards that may be introduced, increased, or controlled at each step on the flow diagram.